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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Introduction

  • Radiation Principles

    • Atomic Structure

    • Radioactive Decay

    • Ionizing Radiation

    • Half-Life

      • Radioactive half-life

      • Biological half-life

      • Effective half-life

    • Decay Chains

    • Units of Measure

      • Curie

      • Specific activity

      • Roentgen

      • Rad

      • Rem

      • RBE

      • Gray

      • SI prefixes

  • Biological Effects

    • Internal Versus External Emitters

    • Radiation Damage to Biomolecules

      • Indirect action

      • Direct action

      • DNA repair

    • Radiation Effects on Cells

      • Mutations

    • Large Doses of Radiation

    • Late Effects

  • Sources of Radiation Exposure.

    • Natural Background Radiation

    • Minor Manmade Sources of Radiation

      • Medical and research uses

      • Industrial sources

      • Accelerators

      • Consumer Products

    • The Nuclear Fuel Industry

      • Mining

      • Milling

      • Enrichment

      • Fuel fabrication

      • Nuclear power reactors

      • Reprocessing

      • Wastes

      • Transportation

    • Nuclear Weapons

    • Summary of Sources of Radiation Exposure

  • Radionuclides of Concern

  • Pathways to Humans

    • Routes of Uptake

      • Inhalation

      • Absorption across intact skin

      • Penetration through wounds

      • Ingestion

    • Food Chains

      • Terrestrial food chains

      • Aquatic food chains

  • Protection Principles

    • Planning Ahead

    • Time Considerations

      • Immediate considerations (first things first)

      • Intermediate considerations

      • Long term considerations

    • Protection from External Radiation

    • Protection from Internal Radiation

      • Reducing internal exposure via the inhalation pathway

      • Reducing internal exposure via skin absorption and wound contamination pathways

      • Reducing internal exposure via the ingestion pathway

      • Hemodialysis

      • Carbon-14 and tritium

      • Surviving a nuclear war

  • Radioiodine

    • Sources

    • Chemistry

    • Critical Organ: The Thyroid Gland

    • Fetal exposure

    • Neoplasms

    • Other organs

    • Strategies for Protection

  • Radiostrontium.

    • Sources

    • Chemistry

    • Critical Organ: Bone

    • Strategies for Protection

  • Radiocesium

    • Sources

    • Chemistry

    • Critical Organ: Whole Body

    • Strategies for Protection

  • Actinides

    • Sources

    • Chemistry

    • Critical Organs: Lungs and Bones

    • Strategies for Protection

  • Conclusion

  • References

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